The sons of Israel who came to Egypt with Jacob were: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Benjamin, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher. Each man came with his household, a total of 70 descendants of Jacob. Joseph was already in Egypt. Eventually Joseph, all his brothers and the people of their generation, died. The Israelites were fertile and reproduced abundantly until they lived in large numbers throughout Egypt.
A new king assumed power in Egypt. Not knowing how the activities of Joseph had benefited Egypt, he said to his courtiers; "The Israelites are numerous and powerful. We must limit them so that they cannot ally with our enemies and fight against us when we are at war." They set supervisors over them and increase their labors. The Israelites built Pithom and Ramses as storage and trade cities for Pharaoh. But the increased work inspired them to reproduce even faster. The courtiers made their lives bitter with more harsh work in construction as well as in herding and farming.
The king ordered the Hebrew midwives, Shiphrah and Puah; "When you attend a birth by Hebrew women, if the infant is a boy kill him but let a girl live." But the midwives feared Yahva and did not obey the king. The king assembled the midwives and asked them; "Why have you disobeyed me and let the boys live?" The midwives replied; "Because the Hebrew women are very robust and delivers before the midwife can come." Yahva dealt well with the midwives and the people expanded. Because the midwives feared Yahva, he made houses for them. Pharaoh ordered all his people; "Every boy that is born shall be thrown into the river but let every girl live."
A Levite man married the daughter of another Levite. The woman conceived and bore a son who she concealed three months. When she could no longer hide him, she made a basket from rushes and sealed it with bitumen and pitch. She put the child in it and laid it in the reeds by the river's edge. His sister watched from a distance to see what would happen to him.
Pharaoh's daughter came to bathe in the river while her maids walked along by the riverside. She saw the basket among the reeds and sent her maid to fetch it. She opened it and saw the child; a boy crying. She had pity for him, saying; "This is a Hebrew child." Then his sister said to Pharaoh's daughter; “Shall I call a Hebrew nurse to feed the child for you?" Pharaoh's daughter said to her; "Go." The maid called the child's mother. Pharaoh's daughter said to her; "Take this child and nurse it for me. I will pay you generously." The woman took the child and cared for it. As the child grew, she brought him to Pharaoh's daughter and he became her son. She named him Moses, saying; "Because I drew him out of the water."
When Moses was grown he went to his kin and observed their labors and he saw an Egyptian whipping a Hebrew. He looked around and saw that no one was watching. Then he killed the Egyptian and hid him in the sand. The next day he saw two Hebrew men fighting each other. He asked the one attacking; "Why do you attack your fellow?" He replied; "Who made you ruler and judge over us? Do you think to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?" Moses was afraid and thought; “Surely this deed is known." When Pharaoh heard, he wanted to kill Moses. But Moses fled and wandered in Midian.
As he sat by a well, the seven daughters of a priest of Midian came and drew water to fill the troughs for their father's flock. The shepherds came to drive them away but Moses helped them water their flock. When they came to their father, Reuel, he asked; "How have you come so soon today?" They replied; "An Egyptian saved us from the shepherds and drew water for the flock." He said; "Where is he? Why have you left the man? Invite him to eat with us." Moses was content to stay with them and married Zipporah, Reuel's daughter. She bore a son whom he named Gershom, meaning; "I am a stranger in a strange land."
During this period, Pharaoh died. The Israelites lamented their bondage and their cry for relief came to Yahva. Remembering his covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, he assumed responsibility for them.
Meanwhile Moses was tending the flock of Jethro, his father-in-law, a priest of Midian. Leading the flock around the desert he came to Horeb, the mountain of Yahva. An angel of Yahva appeared to him as fire burning in the middle of a bush. As he watched, the bush burned but was not consumed. Moses thought; "I will go there and see why the bush is not burnt."
When Yahva saw that Moses approached, he called to him from the bush; "Moses, Moses." He replies; "Yes." Yahva said; "Do not come near. Take off your sandals, for the place where you stand is holy ground." He continued; "I am the God of your ancestors, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob." Moses hid his face for he was afraid to look at a god. Yahva said; "I have seen the suffering of my people in Egypt and have heard their cry from the harshness of their supervisors. I know their agonies and I will deliver them from the Egyptians and bring them to a good land; a large, fertile, and prosperous land currently occupied by the Canaanite, Hittite, Amorite, Perizzite, Hivite, and Jebusite. The torment of the Israelites has reached me. I have seen the Egyptian oppression. I send you to Pharaoh so that you may bring the Israelites out of Egypt."
Moses asked Yahva; "What ability have I to cause Pharaoh to send the Israelites from Egypt?" Yahva said; "I will always be with you. This shall be the token that I have sent you: When you have brought the people out of Egypt, you will honor God on this mountain." Moses said to Yahva; "When I come to the Israelites and say to them; 'The god of your ancestors has sent me to you;' and they ask; 'What is His name?' What shall I say to them?"
God said to Moses; "I am Yahva who has existed and will exist forever! Tell the Israelites: 'The I am has sent me to you." Yahva added; "Tell the Israelites that Yahva, the God of your ancestors, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, has sent me to you. This is my enduring name. This is my eternal memorial.
Go; gather the elders of Israel together and tell them: 'Yahva, the God of your ancestors, appeared to me, saying that he has remembered you and seen how you are oppressed in Egypt.' I have said that I will rescue you from the afflictions of Egypt and bring you to the land of the Canaanite, Hittite, Amorite, Perizzite, Hivite, and Jebusite; to a prosperous and fertile land. They shall heed your voice. You shall come with the elders of Israel to the king of Egypt, and say to him: 'Yahva, the God of the Hebrews, has met with us. Let us go, we implore, three days' journey into the wilderness that we may sacrifice to our God.'
I know that the king of Egypt will not let you leave unless forced by a mighty power. I will extend my power and inflict Egypt with the miracles. After that he will let you go. The Egyptians will see my favor to these people. When you leave, you shall not go empty. Every woman shall demand from her neighbor and servants; jewels of silver and gold, fine clothing. You shall put the spoils on your children."
Moses answered; "They will not believe me nor heed me. They will say that God has not appeared." Yahva said; "What is in your hand?" He answered; "A rod." Yahva said; "Throw it on the ground." He threw it on the ground and it became a serpent. Moses fled from it. Then Yahva said to Moses; "Take it by the tail.” He caught it and it became a rod. “Thus they may believe that Yahva, the God of their ancestors, has appeared to you."
Yahva continued; "Put your hand to your chest." Moses put his hand to his chest and when he removed it his hand was leprous, as white as snow. Yahva said; "Put your hand back to your chest.” Then it returned to his normal flesh. “If they will not believe you, nor heed the first sign, then they will believe the latter sign. If they will not believe these two signs, take water from the river and pour it upon the dry land. The water which you take from the river will become blood on the dry land."
Moses said to Yahva; "Oh Lord, I do not speak fluently, neither previously nor since you have spoken to me. I have halting speech with a stuttering tongue." Yahva said to him; "Who has made man's mouth? Who makes a man dumb, deaf, seeing, or blind? Is it not I, your God? Now go and I will be with you and teach you what to say." He said; "Oh Lord, choose someone else to deliver your messages." The anger of Yahva flamed against Moses; "Is not Aaron your Levite brother? I know that he can speak well. Also he comes to meet you and when he sees you, he will be elated. You shall teach him what to say and do as I teach you. He will be your spokesman to the people. He will be your voice as you are my voice. Take this rod with which you will do the miracles."
Moses returned to Jethro, his father-in-law, and said; "Please let me return to my kin in Egypt to see how they live." Jethro replied; "Go in peace."
Yahva said to Moses; "Return to Egypt. All the men who sought your life are dead. When you go to Egypt, perform all the miracles that I have given you before Pharaoh; but I will make him obstinate and he will not let the people go. You shall say to Pharaoh: 'Yahva has decreed; “Israel is my son, my first born. I have said to you: Let my son go so that he may serve me; but you have refused to let him go.” I will slay your first born son.
With his wife and sons mounted on a donkey, Moses returned toward Egypt with the rod in his hand. On the journey, as they camped one night, Yahva searched for Moses to kill him. Zipporah cut off her son’s foreskin with a flint knife and touching it Moses' feet; said, “You are surely a spouse by blood to me through this circumcision.” So Yahva let Moses live.'”
Yahva said to Aaron; "Go into the wilderness to meet Moses." He met him at the mountain of God and greeted him. Moses told Aaron all that Yahva had said to him, and all the miracles which Yahva had given him. Moses and Aaron gathered together all the elders of the Israelites. Aaron related Yahva's message which he had given to Moses and did the miracles before the people. The people believed that Yahva had remembered the Israelites and that he had seen their affliction. Then they bowed their heads and worshiped.
Afterward Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh, saying; "Yahva, the God of Israel says; 'Let my people go so that they may hold a feast to me in the wilderness.'" Pharaoh replied; "Who is this god that I should obey his voice? I do not know your god nor will I let Israel go." They answered; "The God of the Hebrews has called us. Let us go, we beg you, three days' journey into the wilderness and sacrifice to Yahva, our God. Else he may inflict us with pestilence or with the sword." The king of Egypt said; "Why do you, Moses and Aaron, cause the people to interrupt their work? Go to your labors." Pharaoh continued; "There are many people in this land. Will you cause all of them to rest from their burdens?"
The same day Pharaoh commanded the taskmasters of the people and their officers, saying; "Do not continue to give the people straw to make brick as before. Let them gather straw for themselves. The requirement to make the same number of brick shall not be diminished even the slightest. They are idle and they cry: 'Let us go and sacrifice to our God.' Give them heavier work to do. Do not give them time to regard lying words."
The taskmasters and officers said to the people; "Pharaoh says; 'I will not give you straw. Get straw where you can find it.' Your work shall be diminished." The people were scattered throughout the land to gather stubble for straw. The taskmasters were brutal, saying; "Maintain your production of bricks as it was when there was straw."
The Israelites foremen, whom Pharaoh's officers had placed in charge of the labor, were beaten, while the overseers said; "Why have you not fulfilled your appointed task in making brick both yesterday and today as previously?" Then the foremen of the Israelites cried to Pharaoh; "Why treat your servants this way? We are not given straw but your officers command us to make brick. We are beaten but the fault is in your own people." Pharaoh said; "You are so idle that you ask; 'Let us go into the desert and sacrifice to Yahva.' Go and do your assigned work. No straw will be given to you, but you must deliver the quota of brick."
The Israelites leaders saw that Pharaoh's officers intended to oppress them when they said; "Do not reduce your daily brick production although you are not given straw." As they left Pharaoh, they met Moses and Aaron who awaited them. They said to them; "Let Yahva judge you. You have made Pharaoh hate us and he will cause his officers kill us."
Moses called to Yahva; "Why have you imperiled these people? Why have sent me? Since I came to Pharaoh speaking in your name, he has abused our people. You have not rescued your people." Yahva said; "Now you will see what I can do to Pharaoh. A mighty power is needed make him release them and through my power I will make him free them."
Yahva said to Moses; "I am the one who appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as a mighty god. I established a covenant with them to give them the land of Canaan in which they once resided. I did not reveal my name to them. I have heard the groaning of the Israelites, whom the Egyptians keep in bondage and remembered my covenant. Why tell the Israelites? 'I am Yahva, and I will release you from the Egyptian bondage. I will save you with my power and inflict great punishments on Egypt. I accept you to me my people and you will know that I am Yahva who rescued you from the Egyptians. I will bring you to the land that I promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob andl give it to you for a legacy.' I am God." Moses repeated this to the Israelites who did not heed him because they had an impulsive spirit and were burdened with cruel bondage.
Yahva said to Moses; "Go! Speak to Pharaoh so that he may release the Israelites." Moses said t0 Yahva; "The Israelites do not heed me. How then will Pharaoh heed one like me who stutters?" Yahva gave Moses and Aaron responsibility for the Israelites and Pharaoh in bringing the Israelites out of Egypt.
These are the heads of the ancestral tribes
- Reuben, first born of Israel
- Hanoch, clan of the Hanochites
- Pallu, clan of the Palluites
- Dathan, and Abiram died with Korah, when they defied Yahva
- Hezron, clan of the Hezronites
- Carmi, clan of the Carmites
- Nemuel, clan of the Nemuelites
- Jamin, clan of the Jaminites
- Jachin, clan of the Jachinites
- Zerah, clan of the Zerahites
- Shaul, clan of the Shaulites
Dathan and Abiram opposed Moses and Aaron with Korah, when they defied Yahva. The earth opened and swallowed them along with Korah.
Yahva said to Moses; "Divide the land among the clans according to their size. Give more inheritance to the larger clans and less to the smaller clans. Divided the land by lot and they will inherit it according to the size of the tribes."
The Levites by their clans:
- Levi, who lived 137 years
- Kohath who lived 133 years
- Amram, who lived 137 years
Amram married Jochebed, his aunt. She bore Aaron and Moses. Aaron married Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab and sister of Nahshon. Eleazar, Aaron's son, married a daughter of Putiel. She bore Phinehas.
Aaron and Moses are the ones who Yahva commanded; "Bring the Israelites clans out from Egypt." They are the ones who said to Pharaoh. When Yahva said to Moses in the land of Egypt; "I am God! Tell Pharaoh all that I tell you." Moses replied; "Look at me! I am not a fluent speaker. Will Pharaoh listen to me?" Yahva; “I have selected you as my representative to Pharaoh. Aaron your brother will relay your words to Pharaoh so that he may let the Israelites leave.
I will make Pharaoh obstinate and multiply my signs and my miracles in Egypt. But Pharaoh will not listen to you. Then I will show my power and bring forth my people, the Israelites, from Egypt. The Egyptians will know that I am God when I inflict great punishments on them." Moses and Aaron did as Yahva commanded. Moses was 80 years old and Aaron 83 when they talked to Pharaoh.
Yahva said to Moses and Aaron; "When Pharaoh says: 'Show me a miracle,' then direct Aaron to throw his rod down before Pharaoh. It will become a serpent." Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and did as Yahva had commanded. When Aaron cast down his rod before Pharaoh and his servants, it became a serpent. Then Pharaoh called the wise men and magicians of Egypt to duplicate the miracle. They cast down their rods which became serpents, but Aaron's rod consumed their rods. Pharaoh became obstinate and did not heed them.
Yahva said; "Pharaoh is stubborn and refuses to let the people leave. Meet Pharaoh on the river bank when he goes out the morning. Take Aaron's rod which was turned to a serpent and tell him; 'Yahva, the God of the Hebrews, has sent me to tell you to let my people go to the wilderness to worship.' But you have not listened. Now Yahva says; 'In this you shall know that Yahva is God.' Watch as I strike the water with this rod and turn it to blood. The fish will die and the river stink. The Egyptians will fear to drink water from the river."
Yahva said to Moses; 'Tell Aaron to stretch his rod over all the waters of Egypt; the rivers, streams, pools, and ponds so that they become blood. There shall be blood throughout all Egypt, even in wooden and stone vessels." Moses and Aaron did as Yahva commanded. Aaron lifted his rod and struck the river in view of Pharaoh and his servants. All the water in the river turned into blood, the fish died, and the river stank. The blood was everywhere in Egypt and the people could not drink. Through their magic, Egyptian magicians did same. Still Pharaoh was obstinate and would not release them, as Yahva had predicted. Pharaoh returned to his house and ignored this. The Egyptians dug wells near the river for water since they could not drink of the river water. The river remained blood for seven days.
Yahva told Moses; "Tell Pharaoh that Yahva says; 'Let my people go so that they may serve me. If you refuse to let them go, I will inflict all your land with frogs. The river will swarm with frogs. They will invade your houses and bedrooms, even your beds, ovens and kitchens. They will also invade the houses of your servants and people."
Yahva told Moses; “Tell Aaron to extend his rod over the river, canals, and pools to cause frogs to invade the land of Egypt." Aaron extended his rod and frogs covered Egypt. The magicians did the same with their magic to bring frogs to the land. Then Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron; "Plead with your God to take away the frogs. I will let the people go to sacrifice to Yahva." Moses said; "You may specify when I must plead for you, your servants, and people so that the frogs are destroyed on the land and remain only in the river?" Pharaoh answered; "By tomorrow." Moses replied; "It will be as you desire. By this you may know that there is no one like Yahva, our God. The frogs will depart from the land and everything on it. They shall remain only in the river." Moses and Aaron left Pharaoh. Moses pleaded with Yahva to remove the frogs that he had inflicted on Pharaoh. Yahva did as Moses requested and the frogs in the houses, courts, and fields died. The people gathered them into heaps but the land stank. When Pharaoh saw that the frogs were gone, he became obstinate again and did not follow his promise—as Yahva had predicted.
Yahva said to Moses; “Tell Aaron to extend his rod and strike the dust of the earth. It will become gnats throughout Egypt." As commanded Aaron struck the dust and gnats covered people and animals everywhere in Egypt. The magicians tried to do the same but failed. The magicians said to Pharaoh; "This is the power of a mighty god." Pharaoh remained obstinate and did not heed them—as Yahva had predicted.
Yahva said to Moses; "Tomorrow morning, meet Pharaoh when he comes to the river. Tell him that Yahva orders; 'Let my people go to serve me. If you do not let them go, I will send swarms of flies to plague you, your servants, and people. The houses of all Egyptians will be full of flies as well as the ground being covered with them, except for Goshen. Where my people reside, none of flies will swarm on them. By this you will know that I am God of all the earth. I will put a division between my people and your people. This separation will be seen by tomorrow."
Yahva caused grievous swarms of flies to come into the houses of Pharaoh and his servants. All the land of Egypt was ruined by the flies. Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron. "Go! Sacrifice to your god in this land." Moses said; "It is not proper to do so. Our sacrifice to Yahva will be abhorrent to Egyptians. If we perform this sacrifice in view of Egyptians, will they not stone us? We will go a three day journey into the wilderness and sacrifice to Yahva as he commands us." Pharaoh said; "You may go into the wilderness to sacrifice to your god only do not go very far. Plead with your god for me." Moses said; "When I leave you, I will ask Yahva to remove the flies from Pharaoh, his servants, and people by tomorrow. Only, please do not deceive us any more by preventing the people from sacrificing to Yahva." Moses left Pharaoh and pleaded with Yahva. Yahva granted the requests of Moses and removed the flies from Pharaoh, his servants, and people; none remained in Egypt. Again Pharaoh became more obstinate and would not let the people go.
Then Yahva told Moses; "Go to Pharaoh and tell him that Yahva, God of the Hebrews says; 'Let My people go to serve me. If you refuse to let them go, the power of Yahva will be manifest on all your livestock. There will be a very grievous pestilence on your cattle, horses, donkeys, camels, herds, and flocks.' Yahva will distinguish between livestock of Israel and livestock of Egypt. None of the Israelites will succumb to the pestilence." Yahva set a time, saying; "Tomorrow I will inflict this pestilence." The next morning Yahva inflicted the pestilence and all the livestock of Egypt died, but none of the Israelites livestock died. Pharaoh observed this but he was obstinate and would not let the people go. Yahva ordered Moses and Aaron; "From the furnace, take a double handful of soot. Moses scatter it into the air in the presence of Pharaoh. It will become fine dust over entire Egypt and cause ulcerated scores on people and animals throughout Egypt." They followed Yahva's orders and people and animals developed ulcerated sores. Even the magicians were afflicted by the ulcerated sores. Yahva made Pharaoh even more obstinate and he would not heed the warnings.
Yahva said to Moses; "In the morning, meet Pharaoh at the river bank and tell him that Yahva, the God of the Hebrews, says; 'Let my people go to serve me. Else I will inflict all my power on you, your servants, and people so that you will know that there is no one like me on earth. Already I have inflicted you and your people with torments that could have totally destroyed Egypt and all its people. But I made you obstinate to show you my power so that my name may be exalted throughout the earth. Still you exalt yourself and oppose my people by not let them go?'”
About this time tomorrow, I will cause torrential hail to rain on Egypt—Never since Egypt was founded has such hail fallen—Immediately shelter all your livestock in the fields. Every man and animal remaining in the fields will die from the hail." All of Pharaoh's servants who feared Yahva rushed to shelter his servants and livestock, but the ones who did not regard Yahva left his servants and cattle in the fields.
Yahva commanded Moses to extend his hand toward the sky so that hail would fall in Egypt, on every man, animal, and useful plant in Egypt. Moses extended his rod toward the sky and Yahva sent thunder, hail, and lightening to the earth in the land of Egypt. There was and lightening flashing up amid the massive hail such as had not been in Egypt since it became a nation. The hail struck throughout all the land of Egypt everything that was not sheltered: Man, animal, plants, and tree were destroyed. But in Goshen where the Israelites lived, there was no hail. Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, saying to them; "I have trespassed this time. Your god is righteous and I with my people are wicked. Entreat Yahva to let this mighty thundering and hail cease. I will let you go and you need not stay longer." Moses replied; "As soon as I leave the city, I will plead to Yahva. The thunder and hail will cease. By this you may know that the earth belongs to Yahva. I know that you and your servants do not yet fear Yahva."—The flax and the barley were destroyed since the barley was ripe for harvest and the flax was in bloom, but the wheat and the spelt were not destroyed for they ripen late.—Moses left the city and appealed to Yahva. The thunder, hail and rain ceased. When Pharaoh saw this, he and his servants became even more obstinate. He did not let the Israelites go—as Yahva had predicted.
Yahva said to Moses; "Go to Pharaoh. I have made him and his servants obstinate so that I might display evidence of my power among them and so that you may relate to your descendants how I have mocked the Egyptians by the miracles I have done among them. I did this so that you may know that I am God." Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh, saying; "Yahva asks; 'How long will you refuse to abase yourself before me? Let my people go so that they may serve me. If you continue to refuse, tomorrow, I will infest your land with locusts. They will cover the earth so that a person cannot see the ground. They will eat the residue of that which is escaped the hail and every tree grows in your fields. Your houses will be filled as will the houses of your officials and all Egyptians. None of your ancestors have seen this many locusts during all the time they lived." Then he left Pharaoh. Pharaoh's officials said to him; "How long will this man be a menace to us? Let their people go to serve their God. Do you still not understand that Egypt will be destroyed?'"
Moses and Aaron were again brought to Pharaoh who told them; "Go serve your God. Who among you will go?" Moses replied; "We will go with our young and old, with our children, and with our flocks and herds. We must hold a sacrifice and feast to Yahva." Pharoah said; 'May your God be with you, if I let you and your children go. I understand the deceit in you. No, no! You may go now with your men, to celebrate your God since that is what you have been asking." They were driven out from Pharaoh's presence.
Yahva ordered Moses; Extend your hand over the land of Egypt to bring the locusts to Egypt all the vegetation of the land that the hail left." Moses extended his rod and Yahva brought an east wind lasting all that day and night. In the morning the east wind had spread the locusts over all of Egypt, They remained within the borders of Egypt. They were very destructive; no such locusts existed before then and none will come after them. They covered the face of the whole land, so that the ground was darkened. They ate all vegetation in the land including the fruit which the hail had missed. Not green thing, tree or plant remained in Egypt. Then Pharaoh hastily summoned Moses and Aaron, saying; "I have transgressed against your God and you. Please forgive my actions just for this instance and entreat your God to remove from me this certain death." He left Pharaoh and entreated Yahva. Yahva formed an extreme strong west wind which picked up the locusts and drove them into the Red Sea. Not one locust remained in all Egypt. But Yahva made Pharaoh obstinate so that he did not let the Israelites leave.
Yahva said to Moses; Extend your hand toward the sky and there will be darkness over Egypt, darkness so deep that it can be felt." Moses extended his hand and a thick darkness covered Egypt for three days. The Egyptians could not see each other and no one rose from his place for three days; but all the Israelites had light in their dwellings.
Pharaoh called Moses; "Go serve your God with your women and children but leave your livestock here." Moses replied; "You must let us take the livestock for sacrifices and burnt offerings so that we may serve to Yahva. Our livestock must go with us. Not one animal will be left behind because we must have enough for the service to Yahva but we will not know what sacrifices Yahva may demand until we arrive at the sacrificial place."
But Yahva made Pharaoh obstinate and he would not let them go. Pharaoh said "Flee from me. Be prudent to avoid my presence. If you enter my presence again, you will die." Moses said; "As you have said, I will not see you again."
Yahva said; "I will inflict one more plague on Pharaoh and Egypt. After that he will let you go. He will forcefully expel you from Egypt! Tell all the Israelites to demand silver and gold objects from their neighbors."
Yahva had disposed the Egyptian people to respect the Israelites. Also Pharaoh's officers and the Egyptian people esteemed Moses as a person of great power.
Moses said; "Yahva has commanded that at midnight I go among the Egyptians. All the first born in Egypt shall die: The first born of Pharaoh who sits on the throne to the first born of the slave girl behind the millstones, as well as all the first born livestock. A great cry of horror will be heard throughout Egypt. No cry like it has ever been heard before and none like it will ever be again. But no dog will growl as a threat against any Israelites or their livestock. From this you may understand that Yahva makes a distinction between Egyptians and Israelites. All your officials will bow to me, saying; 'Depart! You and all the people that follow you.' Only after that I will leave." He departed Pharaoh who was enraged with anger. Yahva said to Moses; "Pharaoh will not heed you so that my miracles may be manifested in Egypt." Moses and Aaron had performed all these miracles in the presence of Pharaoh. Yahva made Pharaoh obstinate so that he would not let the Israelites depart Egypt.
Yahva said to Moses and Aaron in the Egypt; “This month will be a new beginning for you. It will be the first month of the year in the Israelite calendar. Communicate with all congregation of Israel. On the tenth day of this month, a man from every family shall take a lamb, one lamb for each household. If the household be too small for a lamb, then combine with a neighbor and take lambs according to the combined number of people. Make your count of the lambs according to the eating habits of each person. The lambs shall be yearling males, either sheep or goats without blemish. You shall keep them to the fourteenth day of the same month. The whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill their lambs at dusk. They shall take some of their blood and put it on the door posts and lintel of the houses in which they eat it. That night they shall roast the meat and eat it with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. Do not eat it raw or boiled, but roasted with fire. Eat its head, legs, and internal organs. Do not let any of it remain until the morning. Burn in fire anything not consumed. Eat it in this manner: Fully dressed, shoes on your feet, and staff in your hand. Eat it in haste for it is Yahva's passover. For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and kill all the first born in the land of Egypt, both man and beast. I will extract vengeance from all the gods of Egypt. I will execute judgments: I am God! The blood shall be a token on the houses where you are. When I see the blood, I will pass over you and not inflict a plague to destroy you while I strike the land of Egypt.
This day shall be a reminder to you. You shall celebrate it with a feast to Yahva as an eternal duty. For seven days shall you eat unleavened bread. On the first day you shall remove all leaven from your houses. Anyone who eats leavened bread from the first and seventh day shall be expelled from Israel. On the first and seventh days, there shall be holy convocations. Except for preparing food, no work shall be done on those days. You shall observe the feast of unleavened bread. On this day I have brought your multitudes out of Egypt. Therefore you shall observe this day throughout your ages as an eternal law. On the fourteenth day of the first month, at sunset, you shall eat unleavened bread until the twentieth first day of the month at sunset. For seven days no leaven shall be found in your houses. Anyone who eats leavened bread shall be expelled from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a foreigner or an Israelite. You shall eat nothing leavened! You shall eat unleavened bread in all your habitations."
Then Moses said to all the elders of Israel; "Choose lambs according to your families and kill the passover lambs. Take a sprig of hyssop and dip it in the blood in the basin. Mark the lintel and the two door posts with that blood. No one shall go out the door of his house until morning. For Yahva will pass through to kill the Egyptians. When he sees the blood on the lintel and the door posts, he will pass over the door and will not permit the destroyer to kill you. You shall observe this eternal law for you and your descendants. When you settle in the land which Yahva has promised to give you, you shall keep this service. When your children ask you; 'What does this service mean?' You shall say: It is the sacrifice of Yahva's passover, for he passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt when he killed the Egyptians and released us from bondage." The people worshiped with bowed heads. The Israelites did as Yahva had commanded. At midnight Yahva killed all the first born in Egypt, from the first born of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive in the dungeon, and all the first born livestock.
Pharaoh rose up in the night with all his officers and people. There was a great cry in Egypt for there was no house without one dead. He called for Moses and Aaron by night, saying; "Get up and depart from among my people, you and all the Israelites. Serve your God as you have said. Take your flocks and herds and disappear. But bless me as you go." The Egyptians were vehement to send the Israelites out of the land in haste. They said; "We are all dead men." The Israelites took their dough before it was leavened with their kneading troughs bound in their clothes that they carried on their shoulders. The Israelites followed the word of Moses and asked the Egyptians for silver and gold jewels, and for clothes. Yahva made the people appear hospitable to the Egyptians, so that they let them have what they asked. They despoiled the Egyptians.
The Israelites traveled from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, plus children and women. A mixed multitude went with them; flocks, herds, and large beef herds. They baked bread from the unleavened dough which they brought from Egypt. It was not leavened because they were thrust out of Egypt in haste. They had not prepared any food for themselves.
The Israelites lived in Egypt for four hundred and thirty years. At the end of four hundred and thirty years—on the exact day—all the host of Yahva departed Egypt. It was a night of observance to Yahva for bringing them from Egypt just as this is a night of observance to Yahva for all Israelites throughout eternity.
Yahva said to Moses and Aaron; "This is the law of the passover: No alien may eat the sacrifice, but every purchased servant may eat after you have circumcised him. A foreigner or a hired servant shall not eat it. It shall be eaten in the house where it is prepared. Do not carry any of the sacrificial meat out of the house. Do not break a bone of it. All the congregation of Israel shall keep this law. When a stranger resides with you and wishes to keep the passover to Yahva, all his males must be circumcised. Then he may approach and keep passover. Then he shall be as one who is born in the land. But no uncircumcised person shall eat it. The law shall be applied to one that is home born and to the stranger that resides among you." All the Israelites did as Yahva commanded Moses and Aaron. On this day Yahva brought the multitude of Israelites out of Egypt.
Yahva said to Moses, saying: “Consecrate all the first born to me both man and beast, they are mine." Moses said to the people; "Remember this day on which you came from bondage in Egypt. By his strength Yahva rescued you from that place. No leavened bread shall be eaten.
This day in the month Abib you depart. Yahva will bring you to the land of the Canaanite, Hittite, Amorite, Hivite, and Jebusite, which he promised to your ancestors; a fertile and prosperous land. You shall keep this observance in this month. For seven days you shall eat unleavened bread and on the seventh day have a feast to Yahva. Unleavened bread shall be eaten throughout the seven days and no leavened bread shall be eaten by you. No leaven shall be seen in all your borders. Tell your son on that day; 'It is because of what Yahva did for me when I came forth out of Egypt.' It shall be for a sign to you upon your hand, and for a memorial between your eyes. Let the law of Yahva be always in your mind. Yahva brought you out of Egypt with his strong hand. You shall therefore keep this ordinance in its season from year to year.
When Yahva brings you to the Canaanite land, as he promised your ancestors, then you will be dedicated to Yahva. Every first born male, man or beast, shall be Yahva's. Redeem every firstborn donkey with a lamb; if you will not redeem it, break its neck. Redeem all the first born of your sons. In the future when your son asks you; 'What is this?' You shall say; 'By his power Yahva brought us from bondage in Egypt. When Pharaoh was reluctant let us go, Yahva slew all the first born in Egypt, both man and beast. Therefore I sacrifice to Yahva all first born males, but redeem all my first born sons. It shall be for a sign upon your hands, and a symbol between your eyes. By his strength Yahva brought us out of Egypt.'"
When Pharaoh had let the people go, Yahva did not lead them through the land of the Philistines, although that way was nearer. Yahva said; "The people may regret leaving Egypt when they see war and try to return." But Yahva led the people through the wilderness by the Sea of Reeds and the armed Israelites left Egypt. Moses took the bones of Joseph with him for he had made the Israelites swear to do so; "Yahva will surely remember you while you carry my bones." They took their journey from Succoth and camped in Etham on the edge of the desert. Yahva led them as a cloud by day and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; that they might go by day and a pillar of fire by night: the pillar did not depart from them.
Yahva said to Moses; “Tell the Israelites to turn back and camp near Pi-hahiroth which is between Migdol and the sea. Pi-hahiroth is near Baal-zephon. Pharaoh will say that the Israelites; 'They are trapped in the desert since the wilderness has disoriented them.' This will make Pharaoh so obstinate that he will follow after you. I will abase Pharaoh and all his host. The Egyptians will know that I am God." They did as Yahva ordered. The king of Egypt was told that the Israelites had fled and he became enraged. His advisers said; "What have we done? Why have we let the Israelites abandon our service?” He arrayed his chariots and warriors including 600 select chariots—all such chariots of Egypt—with their officers. Pharaoh pursued the Israelites because they had left arrogantly. Egyptians pursued them with all their horses, chariots, mounted warriors, and infantry. The Egyptians overtook the Israelites camping by the sea, near Pi-hahiroth and Baal-zephon. When Pharaoh approached, the Israelites saw the Egyptians marching after them. They were frightened and cried to Yahva. They said to Moses; "Have you taken us to die in the desert because there were no graves in Egypt? Why have you brought us from Egypt to die here? Did we not say to you in Egypt; 'Leave us alone to serve the Egyptians?' For it would be better for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the wilderness." Moses replied; "Do not be afraid but stand quietly and watch the greatness of Yahva, which he will show you again today. You see the Egyptians today but you will never see them again. Yahva will fight for you and you will hold your peace."
Yahva said to Moses; "Why cry to me? Tell the Israelites to go forward. Lift you up your rod and stretch your hand over the sea. It will divide and the Israelites may cross the sea on dry ground. I will make the Egyptians arrogant so they will follow. I will abase Pharaoh, his army, chariots, and horsemen. The Egyptians will know that I am God when I have disgraced them." The angel of Yahva, who went ahead of the Israelites, moved behind them and the pillar of cloud moved to stand behind them. It rested between the Egyptian camp and the Israelite camp. The cloud was dark yet gave light that night. The two camps did not approach each other all that night. Moses stretched out his hand over the sea and Yahva caused the sea to flow backwards by a strong east wind all the night. This made the sea dry land and the waters were divided. The Israelites crossed the sea on the dry ground. The waters were as walls on their right and left. The Egyptians pursued them into the sea; all Pharaoh's horses, chariots, and horsemen. In the morning Yahva looked through the pillars of fire and cloud on the Egyptian army. He discomfited the Egyptians by removing their chariot wheels and made them difficult to drive. The Egyptians cried; "Let us flee from Israel for their God fights against us."
Yahva said to Moses; “Stretch your hand over the sea and the waters will flow back on the Egyptians, their chariots, and horsemen." Moses stretched his hand over the sea and it returned to its normal level as morning appeared. The Egyptians fled against it but Yahva overthrew them in the sea. The waters returned and covered the chariots, the horsemen, and the entire army of Pharaoh that followed them into the sea: not one of them survived. But the Israelites had walked on dry land in the middle of the sea; walls of waters on their right and left. Thus Yahva saved Israel that day from the Egyptians. The Israelites saw the Egyptians dead upon the seashore. Israel saw the great work which Yahva to the Egyptians and they feared him. They believed in Yahva and in his servant Moses.
Then Moses and the Israelites sang this song to Yahva;
I will sing to Yahva for he is highly exalted;
He has thrown horse and rider into the sea.
Yahva is my strength and song, he is my salvation;
He is my God. I will glorify him;
My father's God, and I exalt him.
Our God is a man of war, Yahva is his name.
He has thrown Pharaoh's chariots and host into the sea,
His chosen captains are sunk in the Sea of Reeds.
The deeps cover them, they went down like a stone.
Your right, O Yahva, glorious in power,
Your right, O Yahva, dashes in pieces the enemy.
In your great majesty you overthrow any who rise against you;
You send forth your wrath, it consumes them as stubble.
Then your wind blew, the waters covered them
The flowing waters stood upright as a wall;
The deeps were congealed in the heart of the sea.
The enemy said; "I will pursue and overtake them,
I will divide the spoil and be sated with it;
My lust will be satisfied on them;
I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them."
You blew with your wind, the sea covered them;
They sank as lead in the mighty waters.
Who is like to you, O Yahva, among the gods?
Who is like to you, magnificent in holiness,
Awesome in splendor, working wonders?
You extended your hand, the earth swallowed them.
You have led the people that you redeemed;
You have guided them with strength to your holy habitation.
The peoples have heard, they tremble;
Agony oppressed the inhabitants of Philistia.
Then the chiefs of Edom were dismayed;
The tribes of Moab, trembling embraces them;
All the inhabitants of Canaan are aghast.
Terror and dread descends on them;
By the greatness they are as still as a stone;
Until your people cross over, O Yahva,
Until the people that you have redeemed pass over.
You bring them and plant them in your chosen mountain,
The place, O Yahva, you made to dwell in,
The sanctuary, O Yahva, which you have established.
Yahva shall reign for ever and ever.
They sang this because the army of Pharaoh with his chariots and horses went into the sea. Yahva let the water flow back on them while the Israelites had walked on dry land in the middle of the sea.
Miriam, the prophetess sister of Aaron, took a timbrel in her hand; all the women followed her with timbrels and danced. Miriam sang to them; “Sing to Yahva, for he is highly exalted: the horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea.” Moses led Israel onward from the Sea of Reeds and they went into the wilderness of Shur. They found no water as they went three days into the wilderness. When they came to Marah they could not drink since the waters of Marah were bitter. The people murmured against Moses; "What shall we drink?" He cried to Yahva who showed him a tree. He cast it into the waters and they became pure. There he made a law and an ordinance for them. He also tested them. He said; "If you diligently follow the laws of Yahva and observe his commandments, and statutes, I will nor inflict any of the diseases on you, which I inflicted on the Egyptians. I am your God who heals you." They came to Elim, where there were 12 springs of water, and 70 palm trees. They camped there by the waters.
They departed Elim and came to the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after departing Egypt. The whole Israelite congregation murmured against Moses and Aaron. They said; "It would have been better to have died by the anger of God in Egypt, where we were sated with meat and bread. You have brought us into this desert to starve everyone." Then Yahva said to Moses; "I will cause bread to rain from heaven for you. The people shall gather a day's portion every day so that I may test them: Will they obey my law or not? On the sixth day that they shall gather and prepare twice as much as they gather on other days." Moses and Aaron said to the Israelites; "In the evening you will know that Yahva has brought you from Egypt and in the morning you will see his glory. He has heard your murmuring against us and our condition. What are we? Why do you murmur against us?" Moses said; "This shall be. Yahva shall give you meat to eat in the evening, and ample bread in the morning, because Yahva hears what you murmur against him. What are we? Your murmuring are not against us but against Yahva." Moses said to Aaron; “Tell the congregation of the Israelites to approach Yahva for he has heard your murmuring." As Aaron said to the Israelite congregation, they looked toward the desert where the radiance of Yahva appeared in the cloud.
Yahva said to Moses; "I have heard the murmuring of the Israelites. Tell them; 'At dusk you shall eat meat, and in the morning be filled with bread. You will know that I am Yahva your God." In the evening, the quail covered the camp and in the morning there was a layer of dew around the camp. When the dew evaporated there was a fine, scale-like coating, fine as the hoarfrost on the ground. When the Israelites saw it, they asked one another; "What is it?"—Because they did not know what it was. Moses said to them; "It is the bread which Yahva has given you to eat. Yahva has commanded every man to gather according to his needs; an omer per person. He shall gather it for every person in his tent." The Israelites did so and some gathered more, some less. When they measured it with an omer, he that gathered much had no excess and he that gathered little had no lack. Every man gathered according to his eating needs. Moses said to them; "Let no man keep any of it until morning." Some did not heed Moses but kept some until the morning. It bred worms and rotted. Moses was angry with them.
They gathered it each morning, every man according to his appetite. As the sun grew hot, it melted. On the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for each one. All the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses. He said to them; "This is what Yahva said; 'Tomorrow is a solemn rest, a holy sabbath to Yahva.' Bake or cook what you need. Keep all that remains until morning." They kept it until the morning and it did not rot, neither was there worm in it. Moses said; "Eat it today this is a sabbath to Yahva. You will not find any in the field today. For six days you may gather it but on the seventh day—the sabbath—there will be none." On the seventh day some people went to gather but they found none. Yahva said to Moses; "How long will you refuse to keep my commands and laws? Understand that Yahva has given you the sabbath, also he gives you bread for two days on the sixth day. Let every man stay in his place and no one leave on the seventh day." So the people rested on the seventh day. The people of Israel named the bread Manna. It was like coriander seed—white. The taste was like wafers made with honey. Moses said; "This is Yahva's command: Let an omer of it be kept throughout your generations so that they may see the bread with which I fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you out of Egypt." Moses said to Aaron; "Take a jar, and put an omerful of manna in it, and store it before Yahva. Keep it for all your generations." As Yahva commanded, Aaron stored it in the Testimony tent. The Israelites ate manna for forty years until they came to an inhabited land; the land of Canaan.—An omer is one tenth of an ephah.
The Israelites traveled from the desert of Sin, by stages according to the commands of Yahva, and camped in Rephidim where there was no water. The people confronted Moses, saying; "Give us water to drink." Moses replied; "Why do you harass me? Why do you try Yahva?" The people became thirsty and murmured against Moses; "Why have you brought us from Egypt only to kill us, our children, and livestock?" Moses cried to Yahva; "What shall I do with these people? They are almost ready to stone me." Yahva replied; "Parade before the people with the elders of Israel. Take the rod with which you struck the river. I will stand with you there on the rock in Horeb. When you strike the rock, water will flow out of it for the people to drink." The elders of Israel saw Moses do this. The place was called Massah and Meribah because of the striving of the Israelites, and because they tried Yahva, saying; "Is Yahva among us, or not?"
Amalek attacked Israel at Rephidim. Moses ordered Joshua; "Select our warriors and prepare to fight Amalek. Tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of Yahva in my hand." So Joshua did as Moses told to him and fought with Amalek. Moses, Aaron, and Hur went to the top of the hill. When Moses held up his hand Israel prevailed but when he lowered it Amalek prevailed. Moses' hands became heavy so they took a stone for him to sit on. Aaron and Hur supported his hands. He remained there until sunset while Joshua defeated Amalek and his people in battle.
Yahva said to Moses; "Write this in a document as something to be remembered. Recite it to Joshua for I will remove even the memory of Amalek." Moses built an altar, and named it Yahva-nissi. He said; "Yahva raises his banner. There will be war with Amalek throughout the ages."
Moses' father-in-law, Jethro the priest of Midian, heard what Yahva had done; how Yahva rescued Israel from Egypt. Jethro took Zipporah, Moses' wife, whom he had sent away, with her two sons to see the Israelites. One son was named Gershom, meaning; 'I have been a stranger in a strange land' and the other was named Eliezer, meaning; 'The God of my father was my support and delivered me from Pharaoh.' Jethro came to Moses in the desert where he camped at the mountain of Yahva. He said to Moses; "I come to you with your wife and her sons." Moses went to meet his father-in-law and bowed down and embraced him. They greeted each other and went into the tent. Moses told his father-in-law all that Yahva had done to Pharaoh and the Egyptians. Jethro rejoiced for all the goodness which Yahva had done to Israel in delivering them from bondage. Jethro said; "Blessed be Yahva, who rescued you and the Israelites from Pharaoh and the Egyptians. Now I know that Yahva is a deity greater than all other gods, for he arrogantly dealt with them in Egypt." Jethro took a burnt offering and sacrificed it to Yahva. Aaron and the elders of Israel gathered to eat with Moses' father-in-law in the presence of Yahva.
The next day Moses sat to judge the people. The people stood about him from morning to evening. When Moses' father-in-law saw all that he did for the people, he asked; "What do you do to the people? Why do you sit alone while the people come to you from morning to evening?" Moses answered; "Because the people come to me to inquire of the laws of Yahva. When they have a disagreement, it comes to me, and I judge between a man and his neighbor. I explain the statutes and laws of Yahva to them." Moses' father-in-law replied; "This is not good. You and these people will surely fatigue. This process is too tiring for everyone. You are not able to perform it alone. Heed my counsel. Let Yahva guide you and the people in resolving the disputes. You must teach them the statutes and the laws, and show them how to behave and the work to do. Also you shall select intelligent and honorable people to assist you; people who fear Yahva and honor truth, who hate unjust gain. Place such people over them as rulers of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens. Let them render judgment to the people in any seasons. They shall bring only difficult cases to you but judge minor cases themselves. This will make it easier for you and they will bear some of your burden. If you do this with Yahva's approval, you will be able to endure and the people may live in their place in peace." Moses heeded his father-in-law. Moses chose able men from all Israel and made them rulers over the people. They judged the people with minor cases in all seasons and brought only difficult cases to Moses. Moses' his father-in-law departed and he went to his own land.
In the third month after leaving Egypt the Israelites came to the Sinai desert. When they departed Rephidim and came to the Sinai desert, they camped in the wilderness below the mountain. Moses went to Yahva who spoke from the mountain; "Tell the descendants of Jacob: Tell the Israelites what I did to the Egyptians, how I bore you on eagles' wings and brought you to myself. Now if you will heed me and keep my covenant, you shall be my treasure among all people of the earth. You shall be a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.” This is what you shall tell the Israelites. Moses assembled the elders and told them what Yahva commanded. All the people answered together; "We will do all that Yahva has decreed." Moses reported the words of the people to Yahva who said; "I come to you in a thick cloud so that the people may hear when I speak with you and believe you forever. Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow, then have them wash their garments to be ready for the third day. On the third day I will descend in view of the people. You shall mark borders that the people must not cross, saying; 'Be careful to not go up into the mountain or touch its stones. Any person who touches the mountain shall be killed; no person will touch him, but he will be stoned or shot: man or beast, it shall not live. When the ram's horn sounds long, they may ascend mountain.'" Moses went down the mountain and consecrated the people then they washed their garments. He told the people; "Be ready for the third day. Do not approach any woman."
On the morning of the third day there was a thick cloud over the mountain with thunder and lightning. The loud voice of a horn was heard and all the people in the camp trembled. Moses brought the people from the camp to meet Yahva and they stood at the lowest part of the mountain. Mount Sinai was completely engulfed in smoke as Yahva descended in fire. The smoke rose as if from a furnace and the entire mountain quaked. When the voice of the horn grew louder and louder, Moses spoke and Yahva answered. Yahva appeared on the top Mount Sinai and called Moses to the top. Yahva said to Moses; "Go down, order the people, else they may approach to gaze on Yahva which would cause many of them to perish. Also do not let the priests aproach Yahva. Purify themselves so that Yahva will not destroy them." Moses said to Yahva; "The people cannot ascend Mount Sinai; for you ordered us; “Set limits around the mountain and bless it." Yahva replied; "Go down, then ascend with Aaron. Do not permit the priests or people pass the limits to see Yahva, else he will destroy them." Moses obeyed.
Yahva said to the Israelites; “I am Yahva, your God, who rescued you from bondage in Egypt. Do not serve any gods except me. Do not carve any image or make any likeness of anything in the sky, on the earth, or in the seas. Do not bow down to them or serve them. Yahva is a jealous God punishing the evil of the fathers who hate him on the children to the third and fourth generation but showing mercy to the thousandth generation of them who love me and obey my commands. Do not misuse my name for your gain. I will not accept a false oath proof of innocence.
Remember the sabbath and consecrate it as holy. Complete your labor in six days, but the seventh day is the sabbath to your God. Do not perform any work, nor permit your children, servants, cattle, or a stranger in your residence. In six days I made sky, earth, seas, and everything in them. Then I rested on the seventh day. I blessed the sabbath day and consecrated it. Honor your father and mother; may you live long in the land which give you. Do not murder. Do not commit adultery. Do not steal. Do not give false testimony. Do not envy your neighbor's house; nor his wife, servants, bull, donkey, or anything he possesses.”
All the people perceived the thunder, lightning, sound of the horn, and the smoking mountain. When the people saw it, they trembled, and moved afar away. They cried to Moses; “Speak to us and we will listen. But if we hear Yahva speak we will die." Moses said; "Do not be afraid; Yahva has come to test you. Remember the fear of him so that you do not sin." The people stayed far away but Moses approached the thick darkness concealing Yahva who said; Tell the Israelites: 'You have seen that your God have talked from the sky. Do not make idols or images of me—neither silver nor gold. Make an altar of earth for me and sacrifice on it; your burnt offerings, peace offerings, and livestock. Wherever I permit my name to be mentioned I will come and bless you. If you make an altar of stone, do not build it of carved stones. If you work it with tool, you have desecrated it. Do not build steps to climb to my altar for that would reveal your naked body to the altar.'
These are the ordinances which you shall set before them: If you buy a Hebrew slave, he shall serve for six years. Release him freely in the seventh. If he is bought alone, release him alone. If he is married when he is bought, release his wife and children with him. If his master gives him a slave as a wife, she and her children remain her master's property while he is released alone. But if the slave says; 'I am devoted to my master and love my wife and children: I do not desire to leave.' Then his master shall evoke Yahva and pierce his ear with an awl to the door or doorjamb: He will be a slave forever.
If a man sells his daughter to be a slave, she shall not leave as the male slaves do. If the owner purchases her to be his wife and becomes displeased with her, he shall let her be redeemed by her family: He is forbidden to sell her to a foreigner since he deceived her. If he buys her to be his son's wife, he must treat her as a daughter. If he takes another wife, her food and clothing shall not be diminished nor may he abuse her conjugal rights. If he fails in any of these, then she may leave without paying him anything.
Any person who mortally strikes another person shall be killed. If a man unintentionally kills another man, I will appoint a refuge where he may be safe. If a man stalks his neighbor to kill him, take him from even my altar and kill him. Kill any man who strikes his father or mother. Kill anyone who kidnaps and sells a person or holds him for sale. Kill anyone who curses his father or mother. If men fight and one seriously injuries the other with a stone or his fist but he survives, recovers sufficiently to walk abroad with a cane, then the one he who hit him does not incur blood guilt; but must pay for the loss of his time everything necessary for him to be thoroughly healed. If a man hits his slave with a rod and the slave dies, the master shall be punished. But if the slave lives a few days, the master shall not be punished because the slave is his property. If men fight together and one hurts a pregnant woman so that she miscarries but suffers no other injuries, he may be fined as the woman's husband claims. He shall pay what the judges determine. But if she has other injuries, then he shall be punished; life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe. If a man hits his slave and blinds an eye or knocks out a tooth, he shall free the slave.
If a bull mortally gores a person, the bull shall be killed. Its flesh shall not be eaten. The owner of the bull incurs no guilt. However if the bull was known to gore in the past and its owner had been warned but he has not kept it penned; if it then kills a person, the bull and its owner shall be killed. But if the father of the victim accepts ransom for his life, then he shall pay whatever the judges impose on him. If the bull gores a slave, he shall pay their owner thirty shekels of silver and the bull shall be killed. If a man uncovers a pit or digs a pit and does not cover it, and an animal fall in it, the owner of the pit shall pay the owner of the animal. The dead animal shall be his. If one man's bull kills another man's, then they shall sell the live bull, and divide the money received. They shall also divide the dead animal. But if the bull was known to gore in the past, and its owner has not kept penned; he shall pay a live bull for the dead one. The dead animal shall belong to him.
If a man steals a bull or a sheep and kills or sells it, he shall pay five oxen for a bull and four sheep for a sheep. If a thief be found breaking in at night and is beaten to death, there shall be no blood guilt. But if he is killed after sunrise, there shall be blood guilt for him. He shall make restitution. If he has nothing he shall be sold for his theft. If a stolen animal is found alive in his possession, he shall pay double. If a man lets his animals roam freely and they eat in another man's field or vineyard, he shall make restitution from the best of his own field and vineyard. If a man starts a fire and it spreads to the shocks of grain or standing so that the field are destroyed, he shall make restitution.
If a man gives his neighbor money or other property to keep and it is stolen from the man's house, if the thief is found he shall pay double. If the thief be not found, the master of the house shall swear before Yahva that he has not taken his neighbor's goods. For every trespass, whether it be for a bull, donkey, sheep, clothing, or any lost thing, where a person says; "This is mine," the case of both parties shall come before the judges of Yahva; the one condemned shall pay double to his neighbor. If a man gives his neighbor a donkey, or bull, or sheep, or any beast to keep and it dies, is hurt, or stolen with no one seeing it; the oath of Yahva shall be taken by both to see whether he has not taken his neighbor's goods. The owner shall accept it and restitution is not required. If it is stolen from him he shall make restitution to the owner. If it is killed by a wild beast, he must bring it as evidence; restitution is not required for the mangled animal. If a man borrows anything from his neighbor and it is damaged or dies while the owner is not present, he shall make restitution. If the owner is present restitution is not required. If it was rented, the loss was in the rental fee.
If a man seduces a virgin that is not betrothed and lies with her, he shall pay a dowry and marry her. If her father refuses to give her to him, he shall still pay the usual dowry for virgins to her father.
A sorceress shall not be permitted to live. Anyone who has sex with an animal shall be put killed. One who sacrifices to the any gods except Yahva shall be killed. Do not harm a foreigner nor oppress him, for you were strangers in Egypt. You shall not oppress any widow or fatherless child. If you oppress them in any manner—for if they cry at all to me, I will surely hear their cry—my wrath shall inflame. I will kill you with the sword; your wives shall be widows and your children fatherless.
If you lend money to any of my people, even to the poorest, you shall not treat him as a creditor nor charge him interest. If you take your neighbor's garment as a pledge, you shall restore it to him before sunset. That is his only clothing to cover his skin, day or night. If you keep it, in what will he sleep? When he cries to me, I will hear; for I am gracious.
You shall not revile me nor curse a ruler of your people. Do not delay offering from the abundance of your harvest and the flow of your presses. Give me your first born son. Give me the first born of your livestock; it may stay with its mother for seven days but on the eighth day give it me. You shall be men dedicated to me. Do not eat any meat torn by beasts in the pasture but give it to the dogs.
Do not repeat a false rumor nor support the wicked by giving false testimony. Do not join a multitude as an excuse to do evil acts nor testify falsely to pervert justice in favor of the mighty nor show deference to a poor man in his dispute.
If you find your enemy's livestock straying, bring it back to him. If you see your enemy's donkey faltering under its burden, do not ignore him but assist him in releasing it. Do not pervert judgment of the poor in his dispute. Avoid anything dishonest. Do not let the innocent and h0n0rable be killed nor acquit the guilty. Never take any bribe for it blinds the most perceptive and perverts the testimony of the most honest. Do not oppress a foreigner; you know the feelings of a foreigner since you were strangers in Egypt.
For six years cultivate your land and gather the harvest but the seventh year do not cultivate nor harvest it. The poor may harvest it and the wild beasts may eat anything that remains. Do likewise with your vineyard and olive grove. Work for six days but rest on the seventh so that your livestock may rest. The children of your servant and the foreigner may be refreshed. Heed everything that I have said to you. Do not honor the names of other gods nor speak them.
Three times each year all your men shall appear at the house of Yahva to celebrate a festival to me. No one shall appear before me without a sacrificial offering. Keep the Passover Festival for seven days, eating unleavened bread at the appointed time in the month Abib as I command since you left Egypt during Abib, also the Festival of First Harvest of the grain which you sowed, and the Festival of Final Harvest at the end of the year when you gather your crops from the field.
Do not offer the blood of the sacrifice with leavened bread nor let the fat of the feast remain until morning. Sacrifice the best of your harvest in the house of Yahva. Do not cook a kid in its mother's milk.
I send a messenger to guide you along the paths and to bring you to the place I have prepared. Follow him and heed his voice. Do not rebel against him, for he will not pardon your sin since he acts with my authority. If you observe his orders and do all that I say, then I will be an enemy to your enemies. My angel will proceed you and bring you to the Amorite, Hittite, Perizzite, Canaanite, Hivite, and Jebusite. I will devastate them. Do not bow to their gods, serve them, or imitate their actions. Destroy them totally and break their idols into pieces. Serve Yahva your God: He will bless your food and drink. I will save you from sickness. No woman will miscarry nor be barren in your land. I will give you a full life.
I will send terror before you to panic all the people whom you oppose and I will make all your enemies flee from you. I will send hornets before you to expel the Hivite, Canaanite, and Hittite. I will not drive them out in only one year. The land would become desolate and the wild animals would over run the fields. Little by little I will expel them until your numbers have grown and you occupy the land. I set your boundaries from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, and from the desert to the Euphrates River. I will deliver the inhabitants of the land for you and expel them. Make no covenant with them or with their gods. They must not dwell in your land because they lead you to sin against me—You are inclined serve their gods—for they will be a snare to you.”
To Moses he said; "Come to me, with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and 70 elders of Israel: Let them worship from a distance. Only Moses may come close to me. The others may not approach and the people may not go with Moses." Moses returned and told the people the words and laws of God. The people answered together; "We will obey all the words of God." Moses wrote the words of Yahva.
Early the morning he built an altar at the bottom the mountain. It had twelve pillars, one for each tribe of Israel. He selected young men to offer burnt offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of cattle to Yahva. Moses put half of the blood into basins and splashed half against the altar. He took the book of the covenant, and read in the hearing of the people. They said; "We will obey Yahva and do all that he has ordered." Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, saying; "This is the blood of the covenant which Yahva has made with you concerning all his orders."
Then Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy elders of Israel went up the mountain. They saw Yahva, the God of Israel. Under his feet was a pavement like sapphire with purity like the clearest sky. Yahva did not touch the Israelite nobles; but they saw him while they ate and drank. Yahva said to Moses; "Come to me on the mountain and I will give you the tablets of stone containing the law and the commandment that I have written for you to teach them." Moses and Joshua his aide arose and Moses ascended the mountain of Yahva. To the elders he said; "Wait here until we return to you. Aaron and Hur are with you. If anyone has a legal matter, let him go to them."
Moses ascended the mountain which was covered by a cloud. The radiance of Yahva abode on Mount Sinai and the cloud covered it for six days. On the seventh day he called to Moses from the cloud. To the Israelites, the radiance of Yahva appeared to be a devouring fire on the top of the mountain. Moses entered the cloud as he ascended the mountain; and. Moses was in the mountain forty days and nights.
Yahva said to Moses, saying; “Tell the Israelites to bring me gifts. Accept offerings from every man whose spirit makes him to give. Accept these offerings from them: gold, silver, brass; blue, purple, scarlet, and fine linen; goat's hair, ram's skins dyed red, seal skins, and acacia wood; oil for the lamps, spices for the anointing oil, and for the aromatic incense; onyx stones and other stones to be set on the ephod and the breastplate.
They will build a sanctuary for me so that I may dwell among them. I will show you the patterns f0r the tabernacle and all its furniture. Make them according to the patterns. Make an ark of acacia wood: two and a half cubits long, a cubit and a half wide, and a cubit and a half high. Overlay it with pure gold, both inside and out. Put a gold molding around the top. Cast four gold rings and attach them in the feet; two rings on one side and two on the opposite side. Make poles of acacia wood to carry the ark and overlay them with gold. Put the poles through the rings on the sides of the ark where they must remain; never remove them from the ark. Place the tablets, with the commandments which I give you, into the ark.
Make a pure gold cover for the ark: two cubits and a half long, and a cubit and a half the wide. Make two cherubim of hammered gold and place them at opposite ends of the ark cover. Bond the cherubim to the ark cover to form one piece. Spread the cherubim wings high, screening the ark cover with their wings. They will face each other across the ark cover. With the commandment tablets inside, put the cover on the ark. I will meet with you there and speak with you from above the ark cover, between the cherubim on the ark of the covenant. From there I will give you commandments concerning the Israelites.
Make a table of acacia wood: two cubits long, a cubit wide, and a cubit and a half high. Overlay it with pure gold and place a gold molding around it. Make to it a rim a hand's width around it with a gold molding to the rim. Cast four rings of gold and attach them to the corners at the legs. The rings must be next to the rim since they are holders for poles to carry the table. Make the poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold so that the table may be carried with them. Make the jars, ladles, bowls, and jugs, with which to pour the libation, of pure gold. Bread for the offering must always be on the table.
Make a lamp stand of pure hammered gold; make its base, shaft, and cups; its ornamental buds and petals into a single piece. Attach six branches to its sides: three branches on each side. Put three cups resembling almond blossoms on every branch; a bud and a petal for each cup. On the shaft of the lamp stand, put four cups with buds and petals resembling almond blossoms; a bud below each pair of branches, of the lamp stand. All parts of the lamp stand shall be of pure gold hammered into a single piece. Make seven identical lamps along with their trimming shears and fire trays. Use a talent of pure gold to make each lamp stand and its accessories. Mount them to give light toward the front. Be certain to follow exactly the pattern which is shown to you on the mountain.
Make the inner tabernacle tent with ten panels of fine twisted linen woven with blue, purple and scarlet yarns. Weave the design of cherubim into each panel using the finest workmanship. Make the size of each panel 28 cubits long and four cubits wide. All panels shall be the same size. Sew the curtains into two sets, with five panels in each. Put 50 blue loops on the edges of the outer panels of each set so that the loops are opposite each other. Make 50 gold clasps to join the sets together so that the tent completely covers the tabernacle.
Make the outer tabernacle tent from woven goat hair. Make 11 identical panels, 30 cubits long and four cubits wide. Sew five panels into one set and six into another, with the sixth folded back at the front of the tent. Put 50 loops on the edge of the outer panel each set. Make 50 brass clasps and put them into the loops to join the tent into one piece. Let the extra half panel hang over the back of the tabernacle, a cubit on either side, to cover it. Make a cover for the tent of ram skin dyed red and another cover of dolphin skin.
Make the tabernacle walls with planks of acacia wood. Cut each plank ten cubits long and a cubit and a half wide. Cut two tenons and mortises into each plank to interlock them. Make all boards identical; 20 each for the south and north sides, and six for the west. At the rear corners, use two additional planks which will overlap the outer rear plank to form a joint with the sides. They will meet at the top ring. Make two silver pedestals to support each plank: 40 for each side and 16 for the rear. Thus there will be eight boards and sixteen silver pedestals for the rear. Make the supporting crossbars of acacia wood: five for each side of the tabernacle and five for rear. Let the center bar, halfway up the planks, extend the full length. Overlay the planks and bars with gold, and make gold rings to hold the bars. Erect the tabernacle according to the plan shown to you on the mountain.
Weave a veil of fine twisted linen woven with blue, purple and scarlet yarns. Weave the design of cherubim into the curtain using the finest workmanship. Hang it from four gold plated pillars of acacia wood, which have gold hooks and rest on four silver pedestals. Hang the veil from the hooks. Place the ark in the tabernacle behind the veil which divides the holy place and the most holy place. Put the cover over the ark of the covenant in the most holy place.
Set the table outside the veil facing the lamp stand which is on the south side of the tabernacle. The table is on the north side. For the entrance to the weave a screen of fine twisted linen w0ven with blue, purple and scarlet yarns. Make five gold plated pillars of acacia wood, and five brass pedestals, with gold hooks to hold the screen.
Make the altar of acacia wood; five cubits long, five cubits wide, and three cubits high. Attach horns on the four corners to form a single piece with the altar and overlay it with brass. Make pans and shovels to remove the ashes; and scrapers, basins, flesh hooks, and fire pans. Make all the vessels of brass. Make a bronze grating and attach four bronze rings to the corners. Put it under the ledge around the bottom of the altar so that the grating may reach halfway up the altar. Make bronze plated acacia wood poles for the altar. Put the poles through the rings on two opposite sides of the altar to carry it. Make it in the form of a hollow box, as you were shown on the mountain. Make the courtyard for the tabernacle; for the south and north sides make hangings 100 cubits long, woven of fine twisted linen with 20 pillars and 20 brass pedestals for each side. Use silver hooks and fillets for the pillars. For the rear on the west side, make hangings fifty cubits long with ten pillars and ten pedestals. For the east side make hangings for each side of the gate 15 cubits long with three pillars and three pedestals. For the gate of the courtyard, weave a screen 20 cubits long of fine twisted linen woven with blue, purple and scarlet yarns, with four pillars and four pedestals. Fillet all the pillars of the around courtyard with silver Use silver hooks and brass pedestals. The size of the courtyard will be 100 cubits long, 50 cubits wide, and five cubits high. Make brass instruments to be used in service of the tabernacle. Also make brass pegs for the tabernacle and courtyard.
Order the Israelites to bring pure olive oil for the lamp, so that it can burn continually. In the meeting tent, outside the veil which conceals the ark, Aaron and his sons will arrange it to burn from sunset to sunrise before the residence of Yahva. This shall be an eternal law on the behalf of the Israelites.
Gather Aaron and his sons, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, to perform the priest's duties to me. Make consecrated garments for Aaron to enhance splendor and beauty. Advise the ones that I have given skill so that they make garments to sanctify Aaron and his sons so that they may minister as priest to me. They shall make these garments: breastplate, ephod, robe, fringed tunic, headdress, and sash. In making these consecrated garments for Aaron and his sons they shall use gold thread and blue, purple, and scarlet yarn of fine linen.
Skillful workmen shall make the ephod to the highest standard using gold thread and blue, purple, and scarlet yarn of fine twisted linen. Attach a pair of shoulder straps to the top corners to join it together. Use a skillfully woven belt that attaches to the shoulder straps to gird it on. The belt shall be the same work as the shoulder pieces: gold thread and blue, purple, and scarlet yarn of fine twisted linen. Have a skilled artisan engrave the names of the Israelite tribes on two onyx stones: six on the each stone, in their birth order. Enclose them in gold settings. Put the stones on the shoulder straps of the ephod to be a memorial for the Israelites which Aaron shall bear on his shoulders straps before Yahva for a remembrance. Make rosettes of gold and two chains of pure gold braided like cords. Attach the chains to the rosettes.
Make a breastplate of judgment, the work of the skillful workman; make it like the ephod: of gold thread, blue, purple, and scarlet yarn of fine twisted linen. Make it a span square when doubled. Attach four rows of precious stones to the breast plate according to birth order of the Israelites tribes: the top row—carnelian, topaz, and emerald; the second row—turquoise, sapphire, and amethyst; the third row—jacinth, agate, and amethyst; the fourth row—beryl, onyx, and jasper. Mount the stones in gold settings and engrave the twelve tribal names on their corresponding stones. Attach the stones according to the birth order of the Israelites.
Make two pure gold braided chains, like cords, for the breastplate. Attach two gold rings to the top of breastplate on opposite sides. Attach a gold chains to each ring. Attach other ends of the chains with rosettes to the top front of the ephod shoulder straps. Make two gold rings and attach them to the bottom of the breastplate on the edge next t0 the inside of the ephod. Make two more gold rings and attach them to the bottom of the ephod shoulder straps on the front, near the coupling above the ephod belt. Bind the breastplate rings to the ephod rings with blue thread so that it rests on the ephod belt and will not swing loose.
Aaron shall bear the tribal names of the Israelites on the breastplate of judgment over his heart when he goes into the holy place as a continual remembrance to Yahva. Put the Urim and the Thummim in the breastplate over Aaron's heart when he goes to Yahva.
Make the ephod robe entirely of blue with a hole in the middle for the head and a woven border around the hole, similar to the hole of a coat of mail, so that it will not be torn. On the hem, embroider pomegranates from blue, purple, and scarlet yarn entirely around the hem gold bells between them: A gold bell and a pomegranate is repeated around the hem. Aaron shall wear it to minister. The sound of the bells shall be heard when he enters the holy place and when he leaves, else he will die.
Make a plate of pure gold and engrave on it, similar to the engravings on a seal: Sacred To Yahva. Attach it to a blue thread and tie it to the front of the miter. Aaron shall wear it above his forehead on the miter since he bears any guilt that the Israelites commit in consecrating their holy gifts, It shall always be on his forehead so that they may be accepted by Yahva.
Have skilled weavers make the fringed tunic, miter, and sash of fine linen. For Aaron's sons make tunics, sashes, and turbans, for dignity and for adornment. Put them on Aaron and his sons; anoint, consecrate, and sanctify them so that they may serve me as priests. Make them linen breeches for them to cover their nakedness, reaching from the hips to the thighs. Aaron and his sons shall wear them when they enter the meeting tent or when they approach the altar to serve in the holy place; else they will sin and die. This shall be an eternal law for him and to his descendants.
This is the procedure to consecrate the priests so that they may serve me: Select a young bull and two rams, all without blemish. From fine wheat flour, make unleavened bread, unleavened cakes mixed with oil, and unleavened wafers spread with oil; put them in one basket and bring them with the bullock and the rams. Bring Aaron and his sons to the door of the meeting tent and shall wash them with water. Clothe Aaron in the priestly garments; the tunic, the robe of the ephod, the ephod, and the breastplate, then wrap him with the ephod belt. Set the turban on his head and put the holy crown on the turban. Then take the anointing oil and pour it on his head to anoint him. Bring his sons and clothe them in tunics. Wrap Aaron and his sons with sashes, and bind turbans on their heads. They shall possess the priesthood as an eternal law.
Consecrate Aaron and his sons: Bring the bullock to the meeting tent where Aaron and his sons shall place their hands upon its head. Kill the bullock in the presence of Yahva at the door of the meeting tent. Take some of its blood and spread it on the horns of the altar with your finger, then pour all the remaining blood at the base of the altar. Take all the fat that covers the abdominal cavity, the lobe above the liver, the kidneys, and the fat surrounding them, and burn them completely on the altar. Burn the flesh, skin, and dung of the bull outside the camp for it is a sin offering.
Let Aaron and his sons place their hands on the head of one ram. Kill the ram, and splash its blood against the sides of the altar. Cut the ram into pieces then wash its insides and its legs. Put them on the altar with the pieces and the head. Completely burn the entire ram on the altar. It is a burnt offering with a savory essence to Yahva; an offering made by fire.
For the other ram; let Aaron and his sons place their hands on its head, then kill it. Take some of its blood and put it on the lobes of the right ear of Aaron and of his sons. Also put it on the thumb of their right hands and on the big toe of their right feet. Splash the blood against the sides of the altar. Take of the blood that is on the altar and some anointing oil. Sprinkle it on Aaron, his sons, and all their garments. Aaron and his garments will be consecrated as well as his sons and their garments. Also take from the ram; the fat, the fat tail, the fat that covers the abdominal cavity, the lobe of the liver, the kidneys, the fat surrounding them, and the right thigh, for it is a ram of consecration. Take one loaf of bread, one cake of oiled bread, and one wafer from the basket of unleavened bread that is before Yahva. Put the whole in the hands of Aaron and in the hands of his sons. Present them as a wave offering to Yahva. Take them from their hands and burn them completely on the altar as a burnt offering, as with a savory essence to Yahva; it is an offering made by fire to Yahva.
Take the breast of the ram of consecration and present it as a wave offering to Yahva. This is your portion. Consecrate the breast of the wave offering which is waved and the thigh of the heave offering which is heaved up; even the portion of the ram of consecration that is for Aaron and his sons. It shall be for Aaron and his sons as an obligation forever from the Israelites; for it is a heave offering; and it shall be a heave offering from the Israelites of their sacrifices of peace offerings, even their heave offering to Yahva.
The consecrated garments of Aaron are for his descendants, who will be anointed and consecrated in them. For seven days a son who serves as priest, instead of Aaron, shall wear them to be consecrated; everyone who comes to the meeting tent to serve in that consecrated place.
Cook the meat of the consecration ram in a holy place. Aaron and his sons may eat the meat of the ram as well as the bread in the basket at the door of the meeting tent. They may eat anything for which atonement was made to consecrate them. Only priests may eat them because they are consecrated. They are reserved for consecrated priests. If any meat of the consecration or the bread remains to morning, then burn the remainder; it must not be eaten because it is consecrated.
This is the rite to consecrate Aaron and to his sons, as I command you. Consecrate them for seven days. Every day, sacrifice a bull as a sin offering in addition to the offerings for atonement. Perform the purification on the altar when you make atonement for it; you shall anoint it to sanctify it. For seven days make atonement for the altar and sanctify it. Thus the altar will be most holy. Anyone who touches the altar must be consecrated. Offer two yearling lambs on the altar every day forever; one lamb in the morning and the other at sunset. With each lamb a tenth of an ephah of fine flour mixed with a fourth of a hin of beaten oil, and a fourth of a hin of wine for a drink offering; an offering made by fire which is a savory essence to Yahva. Aaron's descendants shall sacrifice burnt offerings every day forever at the door of the meeting tent in the presence of Yahva, where I will meet you and speak to you.
There I will meet with the Israelites and consecrate the tent by my radiance. I will consecrate the meeting tent and the altar; also I will consecrate Aaron and his sons to minister to serve me as priests. I will dwell among the Israelites be their God. Let them know that I am Yahva, who rescued them from Egypt so that I may dwell among them. I am their God.
Make a square altar of acacia wood for burning incense; a cubit long, a cubit wide, and two cubits high. Attach its horns so that it is one piece. Overlay it with pure gold; top, sides, and horns. Make a gold molding for it. Attach two gold rings under the molding to the two ribs, on opposite sides. Pass poles through the rings to carry it. Make the poles of acacia wood and overlay them with gold. Put it in front of the veil that conceals the ark of the covenant and the ark cover over the covenant; where I will meet you. Aaron shall burn incense of sweet spices on it. Every morning, when he prepares the lamps, Aaron shall burn it. When Aaron lights the lamps at dusk, he shall burn incense forever before Yahva. You shall offer no foreign incense, burnt offering, or meal offering on it. Do not pour drink offering on it. Aaron shall make atonement on its horns a year forever; it is most sacred to Yahva."
Yahva said to Moses; "When you take a census of the Israelites, each man shall give an expiation for his life to Yahva so that the plague is not among them. Half a shekel for every one enrolled by the census; half a shekel according to the shekel of the sanctuary—the shekel is twenty gerahs—as an offering to Yahva. Everyone who is enrolled, from twenty years old and older, shall give the offering of Yahva. The rich shall not give more nor the poor give less. When they give the offering of Yahva it is atonement for their lives. Take the atonement money from the Israelites and appoint it for the service of the meeting tent so that it may be a memorial for the Israelites to Yahva as atonement for their lives."
Yahva said to Moses; "Make a brass basin with its brass base for washing. Put it between the meeting tent and the altar and fill it with water. Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and feet when they go into the meeting tent. They must wash with water else they will die; also when they approach the altar to serve me, to burn an offering made by fire to Yahva. This shall be an eternal law for them and for their descendants forever."
Again Yahva said to Moses; "Make a holy anointing oil. Use the chief spices; five hundred shekels of liquid myrrh, two hundred and fifty of sweet cinnamon, two hundred and fifty of sweet calamus, and five hundred of cassia—after the shekel of the sanctuary—plus a hin of olive oil. Make it into a holy anointing oil, prepared by expert perfumers. Anoint the meeting tent, the ark of the covenant, the table with its vessels, the lamp stand with its vessels, the incense altar, the altar of burnt offering with all its vessels, and the basin with its base. Consecrate them so that they may be most holy; anyone touches them must be holy. Anoint Aaron and his sons and consecrate them so that they may serve me as priests.” Tell the Israelites; “This shall be a holy anointing oil to Yahva for eternity. Do not pour it on the skin of a common man. Do not make any like it or a similar composition. It is holy and you must treat it as holy. Anyone who compounds anything like it or puts any of it on a stranger shall be expelled from his people."
Yahva said to Moses; "Use sweet spices; stacte, onycha, and galbanum with pure frankincense in equal parts to make incense, to the highest standards of perfume making. Season it with salt, pure and holy. You shall beat some of it very small, and put of it before the testimony in the tent of meeting, where I will meet with you; it shall be to you most holy. Do not make a similar incense using the same composition for yourselves it is holy to Yahva and must be treated as holy. Anyone who makes a similar essence for his own use shall be expelled from his people."
Yahva said to Moses; “I have selected Bezalel, son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah and filled him with the spirit of God. He has wisdom, understanding, and knowledge for expert workmanship in devising objects in gold, silver, and brass; and expertly cutting of stones for setting and carving of wood. I have appointed Oholiab, son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan to assist him. I have given wisdom to them so that they may make all that I have commanded you: the meeting tent, the ark of the covenant, the ark cover, the furniture of the tent, the table with its vessels, the lamp stand with its vessels, the altar of incense; the altar of burnt offering with its vessels, the basin with its base, the woven garments, the holy garments for Aaron, the garments of his sons to serve as priest, the anointing oil, and the incense of sweet spices for the holy place; following my directions."
Yahva said to Moses; "Also tell the Israelites to keep my sabbath as a sign between me and you forever so that you may know that I am the God who consecrate you. The sabbath is holy to you; anyone who profanes it shall be killed. Anyone who does any work on the sabbath shall be expelled from his people. Work for six days; but the seventh day is a sabbath for solemn rest; anyone who does any work on the sabbath shall be killed. The Israelites must observe the sabbath as a perpetual covenant. It is an eternal sign between me and the Israelites because in six days I made sky and earth; on the seventh day I rested." When he finished speaking, he gave to Moses the two tablets of the covenant written on stone by Yahva.
When the people saw that Moses delayed coming down the mountain, they assembled and said to Aaron; "Arise! Make us a god to be with us. As for this Moses, who led brought us out of Egypt, we do not know what has happened to him." Aaron replied; " Take the gold earrings of your wives, sons, and daughters; bring them to me." All the people removed the gold earrings and brought them to Aaron. He took them and made a gold calf with metal working tools. They said; "This is our god, O Israel, which brought you from Egypt." When Aaron saw this, he built an altar and proclaimed; "Tomorrow will be a feast to Yahva." They arose early the next morning and brought burnt offerings and peace offerings The people ate and drank, and celebrated.
Yahva said to Moses; "Go down to these people, the ones that you led from Egypt. They have become corrupt and have abandoned the commandments which I gave them. They made an idol in the form of a gold calf. They worship it and sacrifice to it, saying; “This is your god, O Israel, which led you from Egypt." Yahva said; "I have seen these people; they are obstinate. Leave me alone so that my wrath may inflame and consume them. I will make another nation great for you." Moses pleaded with Yahva; "O God! Why does your wrath inflame against the people you rescued from Egypt with your great power and force? Why let the Egyptians say; 'With evil intent, he led them away to slay them in the mountains and consume their existence?' Turn aside your wrath and abate this evil against your people. Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, your servants, to whom you swore by your own self, saying; 'I will increase your descendants as the stars in the sky. All the land that I have promised, I will give to your descendants and they shall inherit it forever.'" Yahva repented that he said he would do to his people.
Moses descended from the mountain carrying the two tablets of the covenants; tablets that were written on both sides. They were the laws of Yahva; the writing was engraved by Yahva on the tablets. When Joshua heard the shouting of the people he said to Moses; "There is a noise of war in the camp." Moses replied; " This is not the voice of a conqueror, nor the voice of the defeated; I hear the singing voices of people reveling." When he approached the camp and saw the calf and the dancing. Moses became exceedingly angry and threw the tablets from his hands, breaking them at the base of the mountain. He took their gold calf, burnt it, and ground it to powder. He then sprinkled it in water and made the Israelites drink it.
Moses asked Aaron; "What injury did these people to you that would cause you to bring such great sin to them?" Aaron said; "My master, do not be angry with me. You know the people, how they are inclined toward evil. So they said to me; 'Make us a god, which will travel with us. This Moses: The man who led us from Egypt; we do not know what happened to him.' I said to them: 'Anyone who has gold, take it off. They gave it to me; I cast it into the fire and this calf emerged."
When Moses saw that Aaron had allowed the people to get out of control to the great derision of their enemies, then he stood in the gate of the camp, and said; "Whoever supports Yahva, come here." All the Levites rallied to him. He said to them; "Yahva, our God, says; 'Every one of you take your sword; go back and forth from gate to gate throughout the camp and every man kill; his brother, companion, and neighbor.'" The sons of Levi obeyed Moses and 3000 men were killed that day. Moses said; "Consecrate yourselves to Yahva today for every man has fought his son and his brother. May Yahva bestow a blessing on you today."
The next morning, Moses told the people; "You have sinned a great sin. Now I will go to Yahva again and perhaps I will be able to atone for your sin." Moses returned to Yahva, saying; "Oh, these people have sinned greatly and made a gold idol. Yet now, if you will forgive their sin—if not, please erase me from the book which you have written." Yahva replied; "Whosoever has sinned against me, I will erase him from my book. The people will go to the place I have described to you. My angel will lead you; but on the day I visit, I will levy judgment for their sin on them." Yahva killed these people because they made an idol—the calf which Aaron made.
Yahva said to Moses; "Leave here; you with the people that you led from Egypt, and go to the land of which I promised to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying; 'I will give it to your descendants.' I will send a messenger to guide you to that fertile and prosperous land. I will expel the Canaanite, Amorite, Hittite, Perizzite, Hivite, and Jebusite. I will not travel with you since you are obstinate; else I might destroy you on the way." When the people heard these bad tidings, they mourned and no wore ornaments. Yahva said to Moses; “Tell the Israelites; 'You are obstinate people; if I travel you for one moment, I might consume you; therefore remove your ornaments so that I may know what to do to you." The Israelites stripped off their ornaments from the day they left Mount Horeb.
Moses usually pitched a tent outside the camp at a distance. He called it the meeting tent. Anyone who sought Yahva went out to the meeting tent. When Moses went to the tent all the people would rise to stand at their tent doors and watched him until he entered the tent. When Moses entered the tent, the pillar of cloud descended to rest at the door while Yahva talked with Moses. When the people saw the pillar of cloud stand at the door of the tent, they would rise and worship, each man at his tent door. Yahva talked with Moses face to face, as a man speaks to his friend. When he return to the camp his young aide Joshua, son of Nun, remained in the tent.
Moses said to Yahva; “You tell me to lead these people but you have not told me whom you will send with me. Yet you have said that you know my name and I am favored by you. If I am truly favored, show me your ways so that I may keep your favor for the benefit of the people of your nation." He replied; "My presence goes with you to give you rest." Moses said; "If your presence does not go with me, do not make us go. How will anyone know that I, and your people, have favor? If not by you going with us to distinguish us from all the people on earth?" Yahva said to Moses; "I will do what you have asked, for you have my favor and I know you by name." He said; “Show me your radiance." Yahva replied; "I will cause all my essence pass before you, and proclaim the name of God to you. I grant favor and show mercy to whom I will." He continued; "You must not see my face, for no one may not see and live." Yahva also said; "There is a place near me where and you can stand on the rock. While my essence passes, I will put you into a cleft of the rock and cover you with my hand until I have passed. Then I will remove my hand so that you may see my back but you must not see my face."
Yahva said to Moses; "Prepare two tablets of stone like to the first ones and I will write the words on them that were on the first tablets, which you broke. Be ready by the morning and climb Mount Sinai. Present yourself to me on the top of the mountain. No other man shall come with you nor any man be anywhere on the mountain. Do not let flocks nor herds feed around that mountain." He prepared two tablets of stone. Moses rose early the next morning and climbed Mount Sinai with two tables as Yahva had commanded.
Yahva descended in the cloud and stood with him while he proclaimed the name of God. Yahva passed by before him, proclaiming; "Yahva, Yahva, the God merciful, gracious, long suffering, abundant in goodness, and truth; keeping mercy to the thousandth generation, forgiving iniquity, transgression and sin; but not ignoring the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the descendants to the third and fourth generation." Moses hastily bowed his head to the earth and worshiped. He said; "If now I have found your favor, O God, Please go along with us; pardon our iniquity and sin for these are obstinate people, and accept us for your own." Yahva replied; "I will make a covenant before all your people. I will work marvels never before done in any nation on earth. All the people among which you go will see the tremendous work that I will do for you. But you must observe what I command you today.
I will expel the Amorite, Canaanite, Hittite, Perizzite, Hivite, and Jebusite from the land I give to you. Take care to not make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land which you enter, for they will be a snare among you. Break their altars, smash their sacred pillars to rubble, and cut down their sacred poles. Never bow to another god for Yahva is a jealous God. If you make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and they worship and sacrifice to their gods; they may seduce you to eat from their sacrifice. If you marry their daughters to your sons, and their daughters worship their gods, then they may seduce your sons to worship their gods.
Do not cast a molten idol as a god.
Always observe the feast of unleavened bread. For seven days eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the time appointed in the month Abib. In the month Abib you departed Egypt. All the first born are mine. Consecrate the first born males of all your livestock; the bull, sheep, goat. Redeem the first born of a donkey with a lamb. If you do not redeem it, break its neck. Redeem your first born sons. No one shall appear before me without a sacrifice. Work for six days, but rest on the seventh, even during the time for planting and harvest. Observe the feast of weeks for the first fruits of wheat harvest, and the harvest feast at the turn of the year. Three times each year, all your males shall appear before Yahva.
For I will expel nations before you and enlarge your borders. No one will covet your land, when you appear before Yahva these three times each year.
Do not offer the meat of my sacrifice with leavened bread. Do not leave any of the passover feast until morning. Bring the best first fruits of your land to Yahva. Do not stew a kid in its mother's milk."
Yahva said to Moses; "Write these commandments, for according to these words I have made a covenant with you and Israel." Moses was with Yahva for 40 days and nights during which he did not eat bread, nor drink water. He wrote the words of the covenant on the tablets; the ten commandments. Then Moses descended from Mount Sinai with the two tables of the covenant in his hands.
When he descended Moses did not know that the skin of his face glowed while he talked with Yahva. When Aaron and the Israelites saw Moses, his face still glowed and they were afraid to approach him. Moses called to them; Aaron and the Israelite leaders returned to him, and Moses talked to them. Later all the Israelites approached and he gave them the commandments that Yahva had given him on Mount Sinai. When Moses finished speaking with them, he put a veil over his face. But when Moses went to speak with Yahva, he took the veil off until he came out. When he came out and told the people what was commanded, the Israelites saw that Moses' face glowed until Moses returned the veil to his face or until he went back to speak with Yahva.
Moses told the congregation of the Israelites; "These are the words which Yahva has commanded for you to obey them. Work for six days, but rest on the seventh, It is a sacred day to you, a sabbath of solemn rest to Yahva. Anyone does any work on the sabbath shall be killed. Kindle no fire in your habitations on the sabbath day."
Moses said to all the congregation of the Israelites; "Yahva has commanded; 'From among your possessions give an offering to Yahva. Everyone who loves Yahva, let him give: gold, silver; and brass; blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, fine linen, goat hair, ram skins dyed red, dolphin skins, and acacia wood; oil for the lamp, spices for the anointing oil and for the sweet incense; and onyx stones and stones to be set for the ephod and the breastplate.
Let every skilled craftsman man among you make all that Yahva has commanded: the tabernacle, its tent, its covering, its clasps, its boards, its bars, its pillars, and its sockets; the ark, its poles, the ark cover, and the veil of the screen; the table, its poles, all its vessels, and the bread for offering; the lamp stand for the light, its vessels, and its lamps, and oil for the lamp; the altar of incense, its poles, anointing oil, and sweet incense; and the screen for the door of the tabernacle; the altar for burnt offering with its bronze grating, its poles, its vessels, and the basin with its base; the hangings of the court, its pillars, their pedestals, and the screen for the gate of the court; the pins of the tabernacle and court, and their cords; the woven garments for serving in the holy place, the holy garments for Aaron, and the garments for his sons, to serve as a priest."
The congregation of the Israelites left Moses. Everyone who loved Yahva with a willing spirit brought an offering for the work of the meeting tent, its service, and the sacred garments. Both men and women came, as many as were willing. They brought broaches, ear rings, signet rings, and pendants—gold objects of all kinds. Every man brought a precious offering to Yahva. Every man who had blue, purple, and scarlet yarn made with fine linen; goat hair, ram skins dyed red, and dolphin skins brought them. Everyone who set apart an offering of silver and brass brought it for Yahva's offering. Every man who had acacia wood usable any of the work brought it. All the women who were skilled spun fine linen with their hand and brought their dyed yarn: blue, purple, scarlet. All the women with the skill spun the goat hair. The tribal leaders brought onyx stones to be set in the ephod, and the breastplate; and the spice, oil for the lanp, for anointing, and for sweet incense. The Israelites brought a freewill offering to Yahva; every man and woman, whose spirit inclined them to bring gifts complete the work which Yahva had commanded.
Moses said to the Israelites; “Yahva has selected Bezalel. son of Uri, son of Hur, from the tribe of Judah and has filled him with the spirit of God; in wisdom, in understanding, in knowledge, and in all of craftsmanship to devise precious objects; to work with gold, silver, and brass; and in cutting of stones for setting and carving wood with skilled workmanship. Yahva has given him and Oholiab, son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, the knowledge so that they may teach other workers. He has filled then with wisdom in all manner of workmanship, of the craftsman, and of the skillful workman, and of the weaver in colors, in blue, and in purple, in scarlet, and in fine linen, and of the weaver, even of them that do any workmanship, and of those that devise skillful works. Bezalel and Oholiab shall supervise the work and every willing man with understanding will work to build the service of the sanctuary, as Yahva has commanded." Moses called Bezalel, Oholiab, and every skilled man who Yahva had given wisdom and who were eager to do the work.
They received the offerings from Moses, all that the Israelites had brought for the building the sanctuary and its service. The Israelites continued to bring offerings every morning. Every skilled artisan who worked on the sanctuary halted his work and said to Moses; "The people bring much more than enough to complete the tabernacle that Yahva specified." Moses had this message proclaimed throughout the camp; "Cease bringing these offering for the sanctuary." So the people ceased: the material they had already brought was more than sufficient. Each skilled artisan engaged in his specialty to make the tabernacle.
They make the inner tabernacle tent with ten panels of fine twisted linen woven with blue, purple and scarlet yarns, with the design of cherubim worked into each panel using the finest workmanship. Each panel was the same size: 28 cubits long and four cubits wide. They sewed the curtains into two sets, with five panels in each. They put 50 blue loops on the edges of the outer panels of each set so that the loops are opposite each other and made 50 gold clasps to join the sets together so that the tent completely covered the tabernacle.
They made the outer tabernacle tent from woven goat hair, 11 identical panels each 30 cubits long and four cubits wide. They sewed five panels into one set and six into another, with the sixth folded back at the front of the tent. They put 50 loops on the edge of the outer panel each set. They made 100 brass clasps and put 50 into the loops on each set to join the tent into one piece. The extra half panel hung over the back of the tabernacle, a cubit on either side, to cover it. They made a cover for the tent of ram skin dyed red and another cover of dolphin skin.
They made the tabernacle walls with planks of acacia wood. Each plank was ten cubits long and a cubit and a half wide, with two tenons and mortises cut into each plank to interlock them. All boards were identical; 20 each for the south and north sides, and six for the west. At the rear corners, two additional planks were used to overlap the outer rear plank to form a joint with the sides, to meet at the top ring. They made two silver pedestals to support each plank: 40 for each side and 16 for the rear.
They made supporting crossbars of acacia wood: five for each side of the tabernacle and five for rear. The center bar, halfway up the planks, extended the full length. The planks and bars were overlaid with gold, with gold rings to hold the bars.
They made a veil of fine twisted linen woven with blue, purple and scarlet yarns with the design of cherubim worked into the veil using the finest workmanship. Four gold plated pillars of acacia wood with gold hooks were made to hang it. Four silver pedestals were made to support the pillars. The ark was placed in the tabernacle behind the veil which divides the holy place and the most holy place. The cover was put over the ark of the covenant in the most holy place.
The table was placed outside the veil facing the lamp stand on the south side of the tabernacle. The table was on the north side. For the entrance a screen of fine twisted linen was w0ven with blue, purple and scarlet yarns. Five gold plated pillars of acacia wood, with gold hooks to hold the screen, and five brass pedestals were made.
Bezalel made the ark of acacia wood: two cubits and a half long, a cubit and a half wide, and a cubit and a half high. He overlaid it with pure gold inside and out and made a gold molding around the top. He cast four gold rings for its feet: two rings on each side. He made poles of acacia wood to bear the ark, overlaid with gold. He put the poles through the rings on the sides of the ark. He made an ark cover of pure gold: two cubits and a half long, and a cubit and a half wide. He hammered two gold cherubim and put them at opposite ends of the ark cover of one piece with the ark cover made he the cherubim at the two ends. The cherubim faced each other with their wings spread so that they screened the ark cover with their wings.
He made the table of acacia wood: two cubits long, a cubit wide, and a cubit and a half high. He overlaid it with pure gold and made a gold molding around it. He made a border a hand width around it and a gold molding around the border. He cast four gold rings and put them at the corners above the legs. The rings to hold the poles, for carrying the table, were near the border. He made the poles of acacia wood, overlaid with gold, to bear the table. He made the vessels used on the table of pure gold: the dishes, ladles, bowls, and jars to pour an offering.
He made the lamp stand of pure hammered gold: the base, shaft, cups, ornamental buds, and petals were made into a single piece. Six branches were attached to the sides, three on opposite side. Three decorative cups resembling almond blossoms were made on each branch with a bud and petals. Four cups resembling almond blossoms with buds and petals were made on the shaft; a bud below each pair of branches. Their buds and their branches were of one piece with it; the whole of it was one hammered work of pure gold. He made the seven lamps, the tongs, and the snuff dishes of pure gold. A talent of pure gold was used to make the lamp stand and its accessories.
He made the incense altar of acacia wood. It was square: a cubit long, a cubit wide, and two cubits high; the horns were of one piece with it. He overlaid it with pure gold, the top, sides, and horns; and made a gold molding around it. Two gold rings were attached to opposite sides below the molding as holders for poles to bear it. He made the poles of acacia wood, and overlaid them with gold. The holy anointing oil and the pure incense of sweet spices were made to the best art of perfumer.
He made the burnt offering altar of acacia wood. It was a hollow square: five cubits long, and five cubits wide, and three cubits high. Horns were put on the corners. The horns and altar were one piece overlaid with bronze. All the vessels of the altar were bronze; pots, shovels, basins, flesh hooks, and fire pans. He made a grating of bronze beneath the ledge reaching halfway up. Bronze rings were attached the four corners of the brass grating. The poles were made of acacia wood overlaid with bronze. The poles went through the rings on the sides of the altar to bear it. The basin and its base were made from the copper mirrors of the women who had tasks at the door of the meeting tent.
The courtyard was 100 long cubits on the south and north sides with 20 pillars, and 50 cubits on the west side. The east side was 50 cubits including the gate. The gate was 20 cubits centered in the east side. The length from each edge of the gate to the south and north sides was 15 cubits with three pillars. Each pillar was on a brass pedestal The hangings for each side of the gate were 15 cubits with 3 pillars and their sockets. Each pillar was on a brass pedestal, and had a silver capital, silver bands and silver hooks. Hangings woven of fine twisted linen enclosed the courtyard. The screen for the courtyard gate was the work of expert weavers using blue, purple, and scarlet yarns of fine twisted linen. It was 20 cubits long, and five cubits high, the same as the hangings of the courtyard. The gate had four pillars, identical to those of the courtyard. All the pegs of the tabernacle and the courtyard were brass.
These are the records of the tabernacle of testimony, as they were rendered to Moses, through the service of the Levites, by Ithamar, son of Aaron the priest.
Bezalel son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, was responsible for making all that Yahva commanded Moses. Oholiab, son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan was responsible for the woven cloths and coverings. He was an expert craftsman and a skilled weaver of fine linen in colors; blue, purple, and scarlet.
The gold used in making the sanctuary was received as offerings. The total was 29 talents and 730 shekels, using the standard shekel of the sanctuary. The silver collected from the Israelites recorded in the census was 100 talents and 1,775 shekels: half a shekel per man. The census recorded 603,550 men, 20 years old or older. The silver used in casting the pedestals of the sanctuary and the veil was 100 talents for 100 pedestals, a talent for each pedestal. The remaining 3,775 shekels were used to make hooks for the pillars, overlay their capitals, and made bands for them.
The brass of the offering was 70 talents and 2,400 shekels. It was used to make the pedestals for the door of the meeting tent, the brass altar, its brass grating, all the vessels of the altar, the pedestals of the courtyard, the pedestals of the gate to the courtyard, and the pegs for the tabernacle and the courtyard.
From the blue, purple, and scarlet yarns, they wove garments for service in the holy place and made the consecrated garments for Aaron, as Yahva commanded Moses.
The ephod was woven by a skilled artisan with gold threads; blue, purple, and scarlet yarns of fine twisted linen. The gold was hammered into thin sheets then cut it into threads to work it into colored threads of fine linen. The shoulder straps were attached to it at the top corners to join it together. A decorated sash attached to the shoulder straps in the back to gird it on. It was of the same as the ephod: gold threads; blue, purple, and scarlet yarns of fine twisted linen. Onyx stones were enclosed in gold settings and engraved like a seal. The names of the sons of Israel were engraved on the stones; six on the each stone in their birth order. They were attached to the shoulder straps to be memorial stones for the Israelites, as Yahva commanded Moses.
Skillful workman made the breastplate like the work of the ephod: gold threads; blue, purple, and scarlet yarns of fine twisted linen. It was square and doubled for thickness; a span long and wide after being doubled. Four rows of stones were set in it: top row - carnelian, topaz, and emerald; second row - turquoise, sapphire, and amethyst; third row - jacinth, agate, and amethyst; bottom row beryl, onyx, and jasper. Each stone was enclosed in a gold setting and engraved with their corresponding tribal names, and attached to the breastplate according to birth order of the sons of Israel.
Two pure gold braided chains, like cords, were made for the breastplate. Two gold rings were attached to the top corners of the breastplate and one end of each chain was attached to a ring. The other ends of the chains were attached with rosettes to the top of the ephod shoulder straps at the front. Two gold rings were put on the bottom corners of the breastplate, on the edge next to the side of the ephod. Two more gold rings were put at the bottom of shoulder straps of the ephod above the sash. The breastplate was bound to the ephod with blue thread through the rings so that it would rest on the sash and not swing loose from it.
The ephod robe was woven entirely blue with a hole in the middle and a woven border round about the hole, similar to the hole of a coat of mail, so that it would not be torn. On the hem of the skirt, pomegranates were embroidered with blue, purple, and scarlet yarn entirely around the hem with gold bells between them: A gold bell and a pomegranate repeated around the hem.
Tunics of fine linen were woven for Aaron and his sons along with turbans of fine linen; linen breeches and sashes of fine twisted linen; blue, purple, and scarlet. The linen breeches covered their nakedness from the hips to the thighs; as Yahva commanded Moses.
The plate of the holy diadem was made of pure gold and on it they wrote like the engravings on a seal: “Consecrated To Yahva". It was tied with a blue thread to the front of the miter above. This finished the work of the tabernacle of the meeting tent. The Israelites had done everything that Yahva commanded Moses.
They brought the tabernacle to Moses; the tent, all its furniture, clasps, boards, bars, pillars, sockets; and the cover of ram skins dyed red, the cover of dolphin skins, and the veil of the screen; the ark of the covenant with the poles, and ark cover; the table with all its vessels and offering bread; the pure gold lamp stand with its lamps, its vessels, and oil for the lamp; the gold altar with the anointing oil, the sweet incense, and the screen for the tent door; the brass altar, and its grating, its poles, and all its vessels; the basin and its base; the hangings of the court with its pillars pedestals; the screen for the gate of the court with its cords and the pegs; and all the instruments for the service of the tabernacle of the meeting tent; the woven garments for serving in the holy place; the holy garments for Aaron; and the garments for his sons to serve in the priest's office. The Israelites did all the work that Yahva commanded Moses. Moses saw all the work that they had done, as Yahva had commanded. Moses blessed them.
Yahva said to Moses; "On the first day of the first month, erect the tabernacle of the meeting tent. Put the ark of the covenant in it and screen the ark with the veil. Bring in the table, and arrange the bread on it. Bring in the lamp stand and light the lamps. Set the gold incense altar before the ark of the covenant and put the screen on the door to the tabernacle. Set the burnt offering altar at the door of the tabernacle of the meeting tent and set the basin between the meeting tent and the altar: put water in it.
Erect the courtyard around it and hang the screen of the court gate. Anoint the tabernacle and everything in it with the anointing oil. Thus you consecrate it and all its furniture; it will be holy. Anoint the burnt offering altar and all its vessels, and consecrate the altar; the altar will be most holy. Anoint the basin and its base to consecrate it.
Bring Aaron and his sons to the door of the meeting tent and wash them with water. Put the holy garments on Aaron and anoint him to consecrate him so that he may serve me in the priest's office. Bring his sons and put tunics upon them. Anoint them as you anointed their father so that they may serve to me in the priest's office. Their anointing shall be to them an eternal priesthood through their descendants." Thus did Moses, in all that Yahva commanded him.
On the first day of first month in the second year, Moses erected the tabernacle, laid its pedestals, set up the boards, put in the bars, and raised its pillars. He spread the tent over the tabernacle and put the tent covering over it, as Yahva commanded. He put the covenant into the ark, set the poles on the ark, and put the ark cover over the ark. He brought the ark into the tabernacle, set up the veil of the screen, and screened the ark of the covenant; as Yahva commanded. He put the table in the meeting tent, on the north side of the tabernacle, outside the veil. He set an array of bread on it. He put the lamp stand in the meeting tent, near the table, on the south side of the tabernacle. He lit the lamps as Yahva commanded. He put the gold altar in the meeting tent outside the veil and burnt incense of sweet spices. He put up the door screen to the tabernacle. He set the burnt offering altar at the door of the tabernacle of the meeting tent, offered the burnt offering on it and the meal offering, as Yahva commanded. He set the basin between the meeting tent and the altar and put water in it so that Moses, Aaron, and his sons could wash their hands and their feet when they went into the meeting tent and when they approached the altar; as Yahva commanded Moses. He erected the courtyard around the tabernacle and the altar, and set up the screen of the gate of the court. With this Moses finished the work.
Then the cloud covered the meeting tent and the radiance of Yahva filled the tabernacle. Moses could not enter the meeting tent because the cloud covered it and the essence of Yahva filled the tabernacle.—When the cloud rose up from the tabernacle, the Israelites traveled throughout all their journeys. But if the cloud did not rise, then they did not travel. The cloud of Yahva was above the tabernacle by day, and fire was in it by night, in the sight of all the Israelites during all their journeys.
© Copyright 2015-2016 D E Pauley